Diwrnod 2 – Erasmus+ i Denmarc / Day 2 – Erasmus+ trip to Denmark

Day 2 Denmark

Please scroll down for English.

Diwrnod 2 – Dechreuodd yr ail ddiwrnod gyda brecwast am 7.30-8am, gyda taith byr o’r hostel i’r coleg er mwyn dechrau am 9am. Ar ôl i’w system greu argraff gadarnhaol ddoe, system VET strwythurol a chymharol glir/ syml i addysg ôl-16/17 yn Nenmarc, roeddem yn awyddus i ddarganfod mwy am sut roedd y system yn gweithio’n ymarferol. A allai gwerthoedd cyfunol cenedl â chyfradd dreth 51% fod yn y gatalyst ar gyfer cydweithio a chynnal perthnasau addysg a diwydiant cryf.
Dechreuodd ein cyflwyniad cyntaf o’r dydd gyda Hans Lehmann, Is-Bennaeth EUC Syd, a eglurodd fod Vocational Education Training yn astudiaeth academaidd amser llawn ond gyda blas cwricwlwm cryf tuag at faes galwedigaethol penodol. Fel Is-Bennaeth, mae ei rôl yn cwmpasu E & T, TG a rhyngwladol galwedigaethol. (dyma brif feysydd darpariaeth EUC Syd). Os yw dysgwyr eisiau astudio rhywbeth arall, mae’n rhaid iddynt deithio i goleg neu goleg partner arall ymhell i ffwrdd. Yn debyg iawn i wledydd Ewrop arall, gweddol bach eu maint yw’r coleg, gyda 2000 o ddysgwyr, ac maent yn canolbwyntio ar ddarpariaeth SMART a chyflenwi mewn ymateb i anghenion y diwydiant lleol. Oherwydd cysylltiadau diwydiannol cryf a rhaglen brentisiaeth ddeuol (dual system) yn seiliedig ar flociau o 20 awr, roedd y coleg yn gymharol dawel pan oeddem yno, gan fod nifer fawr o’r fyfyrwyr allan yn y gweithle.
Mae Hans hefyd yn gofalu am gysylltiadau gyda’r gymuned leol. Mae ar fin hyrwyddo a chymryd rhan mewn gweithgareddau dinesig (Prosiect Zero, UNESCO, ac ati), gan geisio cryfhau partneriaethau tref / cymuned. Mae hefyd yn weithredol mewn gwaith Ewropeaidd a chryfhau cysylltiadau Ewropeaidd. Mae’n Is-lywydd EFVET – Fforwm Ewropeaidd sy’n seiliedig ar waith VET yn Brwsel ac yn edrych ar symudedd myfyrwyr a staff ac mae’n gweithio ar ddatblygu rhaglenni’r UE, ERASMUS + ac eraill ac mae’n aelod o grŵp TR3 Transatlantig, sy’n cynnwys yr Unol Daleithiau. Ar ôl dychwelyd, bydd ColegauCymru yn derbyn cynnig caredig Hans o ymaelodi gyda EFVET.
Roedd gennym ddiddordeb i ddysgu mwy am amodau staffio, ynghyd â gweithlu sy’n heneiddio, yr oeddem am wybod a oedd y rhain yn heriau tebyg i rai ni. Yn wir, roedd hi’n stori debyg iawn yno hefyd.
Yn gryno, rhaid i athrawon VET gael eu hyfforddi mewn maes benodol, gyda lefelau A perthnasol, 5 mlynedd o brofiad gwaith ôl-raddedig perthnasol a diploma addysgu o fewn 3 blynedd. Mae’r diploma addysgu tua £ 25k, felly maent am gadw staff y maent wedi buddsoddi ynddo. Ni allant gyflwyno cymalau i’w cadw, a rhaid iddynt gydymffurfio â strwythurau cyflog cenedlaethol (gyda hyblygrwydd cyfyngedig iawn). Mae hon yn her mewn meysydd sydd â phrinder sgiliau. Mae’r meysydd prinder mewn peirianneg, awtomeiddio, ac ati lle mae cyflogau diwydiannol yn llawer uwch. Mae cymysgedd o staff llawn a rhan amser, gyda rhai ar gontractau dros dro (ar gyfer hyblygrwydd) sy’n heriol. Un her tebyg arall oedd fod oedran cyfartalog y staff addysgu yn hyn ond mae un nhw yn uwch na un ni, ac yn 57.
Daeth cwestiwn olaf i Hans gan un o gynrychiolwyr ein cyflogwyr oedd a diddordeb clywed am arddull arweinyddiaeth Hans, ei ymateb, “fy arddull arweinyddiaeth ddewisol yw bod yn anffurfiol ond mae yna adegau pan fo angen mwy o ffurfioldeb (ee pan fydd angen toriadau swyddi). Mae gan yr uwch dîm polisi drws agored. ”
Yn ôl rhagolygon Cedefop erbyn 2020, bydd gan oddeutu 61% o bobl 30 i 34 oed gymwysterau lefel uchel, yn sylweddol uwch na meincnod cyrhaeddiad addysgol yr UE o 40% erbyn 2020, ac erbyn 2025 y rhagolygon yw bod gan 70% gymwysterau lefel uwch.

Gyda’r pwyslais cynyddol ar gyfer cymwysterau/sgiliau lefel uwch yma yng Nghymru, aethom ar ymweliadau adrannol i glywed gan yr ymarferwyr a’r dysgwyr yn uniongyrchol am eu profiadau yn y coleg.
Siaradom â dysgwyr TG, Teilwriaeth, CAD / CAM ac Awtomasiwn. Wrth i ni ymweld sylwon ni fod y myfyrwyr ar ben eu hunain a bu’n rhaid inni fynd i ddarganfod y darlithwyr a oedd yn mabwysiadu agwedd ‘laissez faire’ yn eu steil addysgu, yn rhoi grym i’r dysgwr ac yn ysbrydoli dysgu annibynnol.
Yn dilyn cinio maethlon arall yn y ffreutur, gwnaethom gyfarfod â Peter Brodersen, Cadeirydd yr Adran,sy’n gyfrifol am yr elfen vocational upper secondary. Mae’n ymgais i briodi’r gorau o fyd academaidd a galwedigaethol. Mae ‘Astudio addysg baratoadol’ yn ddolen rhwng ysgol orfodol (sylfaenol) ac addysg bellach. Mae’n bont tair blynedd. Os yw myfyrwyr am fynd i mewn i’r gweithlu ar ôl y coleg hwn, dylent fod yn y ffrwd VET. Mae 80% o fyfyrwyr Daneg yn dewis addysg yn General Upper Secondary, 20% yn VET a Vocational Upper Secondary. Y nod yw eu bod yn cael rhywfaint o wybodaeth, sgiliau astudio ac aeddfedrwydd (gan gynnwys bod yn barod i adael cartref). Maent yn cael eu cyflogi, gyda chyflogau a chyfundrefn ariannol sy’n debyg yr un fath â’r llwybr VET.

Roedd y system VET yn wynebu heriau tebyg i Gymru, gan wynebu ffobia coler las ymhlith rhieni a dysgwyr. Mae gan VET lawer o hyd i’w wneud er mwyn sicrhau cydraddoldeb haeddadwy i’r llwybr galwedigaethol yma yn Nenmarc.
Roedd ein hymweliad nesaf i Brifysgol tua 20 munud o gerdded ar draws y dref gyda Peter i gwrdd â Per Boisen, Pennaeth Gwasanaethau Myfyrwyr Prifysgol De Denmark (SDU). Mae’r Brifysgol a adeiladwyd yn 2007 wedi ei leoli ar lan afon Sonderborg ac mae ganddi ystod gyfyngedig o raglenni, gan ganolbwyntio ar dri phrif faes; Gwyddorau Cymdeithasol, Dyniaethau a Pheirianneg. Crybwyllwyd y Brifysgol i Lywodraeth Denmarc y dymunai gynnig gwasanaethau iechyd ond gwrthodwyd y cais gan fod eisoes darpariaeth mewn mannau eraill. Dim ond 1200 o fyfyrwyr sy’n astudio’n llawn amser ac mae tua 65% yn fyfyrwyr rhyngwladol, ac felly mae’r holl raglenni’n cael eu haddysgu trwy gyfrwng y Saesneg. Fel bob amser ar ein hymweliadau Erasmus + Ewropeaidd, mae sgiliau a gallu amlieithog ein cyfoedion dramor yn amlwg ac yn arferol iawn. Mae staff a dysgwyr yn siarad Daneg, Saesneg ac Almaeneg. Mae Denmarc yn ymrwymedig  i ddysgu gydol oes.
Mae addysg yn rhad ac am ddim i’r myfyriwr ac, os ydynt yn gweithio, mae o leiaf 10 awr yr wythnos lle mae’n bosib derbyn cymorth gan y llywodraeth ar gyfer costau byw. Wrth recriwtio myfyrwyr, nid yw’r Brifysgol o reidrwydd yn ceisio gwneud y mwyaf o’r niferoedd, y blaenoriaeth yw sicrhau fod y myfyrwyr am aros, gan fod cyfradd sy’n gadael heb orffen yn 35%, sy’n uchel. Bydd denu dysgwyr yn parhau i fod yn heriol gyda chynnig cyfyngedig o ddarpariaeth, ond rydym yn dymuno pob llwyddiant i’r dyfodol.
Ar ein noson ddiwethaf yn Sonderborg fe aethom allan ar ôl swper i bar (distaw arall) yn y dref i grynhoi diwrnod arall llawn gwybodaeth. Mae’n dod yn gynyddol amlwg nad yw eu system yn well, dim ond yn wahanol. Yn naturiol, mae Cymru a Denmarc yn ymdrechu yn gynyddol am wledydd gyda sgiliau lefel uwch.

http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/country-reports/denmark-skills-forecasts-2025open door policy.”

day2b

Day 2 began at the same time with a breakfast at 7.30-8am, followed by a brisk, short work from the hostel to the college for a 9am start. After being impressed the day before with the structured and relatively clear/simple post-16/17 VET system in Denmark we were eager to find out more about how the system worked in practice. Could the collective values of a nation with a 51% tax rate be the driving force for collaboration and strong education and industry links.

Our first presentation of the day began with Hans Lehmann, Vice Principal of EUC Syd, who clarified that Vocational Upper Secondary is full-time academic study but with a strong curriculum flavour towards a specific vocational area. As Vice Principal, his role covers vocational E&T, IT and international. (these are the main areas of EUC Syd provision). If learners want to study something else, they have to travel to another partner college or college further away. They are, as is usual in the rest of Europe, a small college, smaller in size in the main, (2000 learners) and concentrate on SMART provision and delivery in response to local industry needs. Due to strong industry links and a dual apprenticeship programme based on blocks of 20 hours, the college was relatively quiet when we were there, as a large number of students were out in the workplace.

Hans also looks after links with local community. He is out and about promoting and engaging in civic activities (Project Zero, UNESCO, etc.), trying to strengthen town/community partnerships. He is also active in European work and strengthening European links. He is Vice President of  EFVET – Brussels based European Forum for VET – student and staff mobility and works on developing EU programmes, ERASMUS+ and others and is a member of the TA3 Transatlantic group, which includes the US. On return ColegauCymru will accept Hans kind offer of becoming a EFVET member.

We were interested to learn more about staffing conditions,  faced with recruitment and retention challenges in Wales, coupled with an  ageing workforce we wanted to know if these were similar challenges that the VET system was facing in Denmark. Indeed it was a very similar story there too.
In brief, VET teachers have to be trained in a specific trade, have relevant A levels, 5 years of relevant post-graduation work experience and a teaching diploma within 3 years. The teaching diploma costs about £25k, so they want to keep staff in whom they’ve invested. They can’t introduce clauses to keep them, and they have to stick to national wage structures (with very limited flexibility). This is a challenge in areas with skills shortages. The shortage areas are in engineering, automation, etc. where industrial salaries are much higher. There is a mix of full and part-time staff, with some on temporary contracts (for flexibility) which is challenging.
Most shockingly however, was the average age of teaching staff is about 57.

A final question from one of our employer delegates, was on Hans leadership style, his response, “my preferred leadership style is to be informal but there are times when greater formality is required (e.g. when job cuts are necessary). The senior team have an open door policy.”

According to Cedefop’s forecasts by 2020, around 61% of 30 to 34 year olds will have high level qualifications, significantly above the EU’s educational attainment benchmark of 40% by 2020, and by 2025 the forecast is for 70% to have higher level qualifications. With the drive for higher level qualifications here in Wales, we went on departmental visits to hear from the practitioners and learners first hand about their college experience.

We spoke with learners in IT, Tailoring, CAD/CAM and Automation. The learners were in the classroom by themselves and we had to go and find the lecturers who were very hands off and laissez faire in their style of teaching, empowering and inspiring independent learning.

Following another nutritious canteen lunch, we met with Peter Brodersen, Chair of Department, who is responsible for the vocational upper secondary element. It is an attempt to marry the best of academic and vocational worlds. ‘Study preparatory education’ is a link between compulsory (basic) school and further education. It is a three year bridge. If students want to enter the workforce after this college, they should be in the VET stream. 80% of Danish students are in the general upper secondary, 20% split between the vocational upper secondary and the VET, with the vocational upper secondary taking students from the VET. The aim is that they get some knowledge, study skills and maturity (including being ready to leave home). They are employed, with wages and a financial regime which is essentially the same as the VET route. The curriculum is a mix of theoretical, academic, largely classroom based, not engaged with employers, on the one hand, and vocational trade skills on the other. They’ll study a range of seven academic subjects (at different levels, depending on the subject) as well as the technical skills.

Education System

 

The VET system faced similar challenges to Wales, facing  blue collar phobia amongst parents and learners . VET still has a long way to go ensure the parity of esteem it so deserves here in Denmark.

Our next visit was a 20 minute walk across town with Peter to meet Per Boisen, Head of Student Services at Southern Denmark University (SDU).  The University built in 2007 is located on the river bank of Sonderborg and has a limited range of programmes, focussing on three main arease; Social Sciences, Humanities and Engineering. Per mentioned they would like to offer health services but Government has refused as it’s already delivery elsewhere. There are only 1200 students studying full time and approx 65% are international students, and so all programs are taught through the medium of English. As always on our European Erasmus+ visits, the multilingualism skills and ability of our hosts is apparent and very much normal. Staff and learners speak Danish, English and German. Denmark is also committed to lifelong learning.

Education is free to the student and, if they work (employment) minimum 10 hours per week, can get government support for living cost. In recruiting students, the University is not necessarily trying to maximise the numbers, but to get a good match, in order to avoid dropout, 35% drop out rate, both because they get financial penalties and for societal reasons. Attracting learners will remain a challenge with a limited offer of provision, but we wish them luck and success for the future.

On our last evening in Sonderborg we headed out after supper in the hostel canteen to a bar in town to digest another day of information, where it was becoming increasingly obvious that their system was not better, just different. Naturally, both Wales and Denmark are  striving for a country with higher level skills.

http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/country-reports/denmark-skills-forecasts-2025open door policy.”

 

 

 

 

 

Advertisements

About Claire Roberts

Claire.roberts [a] colegaucymru.ac.uk
This entry was posted in Skills. Bookmark the permalink.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s